|1492||Christopher Columbus makes first voyage in search of Asia, encountering islands of North America and establishing the route to the New World.|
|1497||John Cabot brings back word of codfish resources discovered off Newfoundland.|
|1502||European fishing fleets are working in Newfoundland waters.|
|1509||Spanish subjugate and settle Puerto Rico.|
|1560||Swiss naturalist Konrad Gesner publishes his NOMENCLATOR AQUATILIUM ANIMANTUM and continues his attempt to identify every known animal.|
|1565||Spanish establish permanent settlement at present-day St. Augustine, Florida, driving out earlier French settlers in the area.|
|1565||St. Augustine, Florida, established by Spanish to guard sea-lanes to Spanish America.|
|1585||– 1586||John White paints watercolors of Native American coastal residents during Sir Walter Raleigh’s unsuccessful Roanoke expedition to the Carolina coast. Inhabitants disappear and settlement becomes known as the “Lost Colony of Roanoke”.|
|1590||– 1635||Theodore de Bry publishes impressions of coastal America in the many volumes of the illustrated series America.|
|1607||Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in North America, is established as a commercial outpost to develop sea trade with Great Britain.|
|1614||The establishment of Dutch Ft. Oranje near present site of Albany, New York, opens Hudson River to European trade.|
|1619||First Africans in North America are brought to Jamestown.|
|1620||The Mayflower arrives in Plymouth Harbor and the English Puritans establish the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts.|
|1620||Having landed in New England and established the Plymouth Colony, the Pilgrims plan to use fish as a trade commodity.|
|1624||First permanent Dutch settlement at New York.|
|1624||“Nieuw Amsterdam”, on Manhattan Island, is established as the Dutch entrepot for trade.|
|1634||English Catholics settle at St. Mary’s in the new colony of Maryland.|
|1638||A Swedish settlement is established at site of Wilmington, Delaware.|
|1650||Alongshore whale fishery established by European settlers on Long Island, New York, with assistance of Native American whalers.|
|1654||Jews first settle in New York.|
|1660||– 1775||Navigation Acts control trade relationships of American merchants, largely limiting them to trade within the British Empire.|
|1671||In London, John Ogilby publishes a beautifully illustrated book entitled AMERICA without attributing the work to its Dutch author, Arnoldus Montanus.|
|1673||Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet travel across the Great Lakes and explore the upper portion of the Mississippi River.|
|1680||– 1850||“Voyageurs” use the lake and river networks for fur trapping and trade with American Indians.|
|1681||Philadelphia is established as a port on the Delaware River.|
|1682||Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, travels down the Mississippi to its mouth and claims the region for France.|
|1682||Welsh Quakers settle in the new colony of Pennsylvania.|
|1683||German Quakers arrive in Pennsylvania.|
|1685||French Hugenots settle in North America.|
|1689||Scottish and Irish emigration begins.|
|1690||Beginning of large-scale African slave trade to North America, totaling more than 660,000 before 1808.|
|1699||Boston, Massachusetts, is the leading colonial port.|
|1701||French settlers establish outpost at the site of Detroit.|
|1712||First recorded capture of a sperm whale.|
|1714||– 1720||Large-scale Scotch-Irish immigration.|
|1717||An early engraving of New York depicts the sloop yacht Fancy, owned by a wealthy New Yorker.|
|1718||French establish the settlement of New Orleans.|
|1720||Cod fishermen of Marblehead and Gloucester, Massachusetts, begin to dominate New England commercial fisheries.|
|1723||– 1889||Orne-Cushing-Baldwin-Tappan Family Collection; Orne-Cushing-Family|
|1727||– 1775||Large-scale German and Swiss immigration.|
|1750||Rhode Islanders develop method of separating oil from the waxy spermaceti found in heads of sperm whales and begin to manufacture candles.|
|1755||French Acadians evicted from Nova Scotia, some being resettled in Louisiana, becoming “Cajuns”.|
|1762||New Haven, Connecticut, passes an act to protect natural oyster beds.|
|1764||French establish outpost at the site of St. Louis.|
|1767||– 1867||Silas Talbot Collection; Talbot, Silas|
|1771||Certificate of Membership; Wheaton, William
Membership certificate of William Wheaton for the New York Marine Society.
|1775||At a meeting in Philadelphia, the Continental Congress votes to fit out two sailing vessels with guns and men to send out on a cruise of three months to intercept transports carrying munitions and provisions to the British army in America. This is widely accepted as the “birthday” of the United States Navy.|
|1775||– 1890||Henry Wadsworth Fletcher Collection; Fletcher, Henry Wadsworth|
|1775||– 1839||John Palmer Papers; Palmer, John
Included in this collection are letters to John Palmer at Newport during 1776 from family and friends. Two diaries kept by John Palmer between 1775 and 1777 provide insights into the Revolutionary Period, as do the 2 sea journals from the Privateer REVENGE. Present also are logs and journals for the Snow BLACK PRINCESS, Schooner LITTLE REBECCA, Sloop COUNT D’ESTAINGE, Brig BETSEY, and the Ship READYMONEY. Most of the material after 1800 (about 10% of the total) involves other members of the Palmer family.
|1776||The Continental Marines capture Nassau, Bahamas from the British, in the first amphibious operation of the Revolutionary War.|
|1776||The American fleet on Lake Champlain is defeated, but delays the British invasion of northern New York.|
|1778||John Singleton Copley paints Watson and the Shark, which is considered to be the first marine painting by an American artist.|
|1778||Articles of agreement; Revenge (Sloop)
Articles of agreement, 1778, for a six week privateering voyage by the Sloop REVENGE, New London. Articles established the amount or shares of any potential profits realised during the cruise, that would be proportioned to the owners, officers, and crew members. The document, however, was never executed, since no signatures appear in the space provided.
|1779||– 1899||Joseph Williams Collection; Williams, Joseph|
|1779||“I have not yet begun to fight,” Captain John Paul Jones reportedly proclaims as his damaged American ship Bonhomme Richard defeats HMS Serapis off Flamborough Head, England, in the best-known naval engagement of the American Revolution.|
|1782||– 1809||Joseph King Papers; King, Joseph|
|1783||The Treaty of Paris ends the American Revolution, but prohibits American ships from trading with its former trading partners in the British Caribbean islands.|
|1783||United States fishing rights to waters off Newfoundland and Labrador and in Gulf of St. Lawrence recognized in Treaty of Paris ending American Revolution.|
|1784||The wooden codfish is hung in the Massachusetts House of Representatives “as a memorial of the importance of the cod fishery to the welfare of this Commonwealth”.|
|1784||Certificate of registry; Hawke (Schooner)
Certificate of registry for the Schooner Hawke, Samuel Stone, master, issued in Salem, Massachusetts. Contains seal and carries signature of John Hancock, governor of Massachusetts.
|1785||The Continental Navy is dissolved with the order to sell the last ship remaining in the fleet, the frigate Alliance. United States has no naval fleet for 12 years.|
|1789||The new federal government establishes Customs Service to license vessels and collect tariffs on trade. During the following century, customs revenues total as much as 90 percent of United States government income.|
|1790||Captain Robert Gray locates the mouth of the Columbia River.|
|1790||– 1840||Flatboats are used for carrying cargo downstream on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and keelboats for travel in both directions.|
|1790||The damming of the Connecticut River and its tributaries for industrial power shuts off access to most Atlantic salmon spawning grounds, nearly eliminating that fish in southern New England waters.|
|1790||– 1807||Heaviest traffic in African slaves, ending with federal prohibition of slave trade after 1 January 1808, but perhaps 50,000 Africans brought in illegally between 1808 and 1861.|
|1790||– 1860||Kermit family collection; Kermit family
Manuscripts relating to the business and domestic activities of shipmaster Capt. Henry Kermit, who also owned a store and wharf in New York, and members of the Kermit family, including letters, bills, accounts, receipts, and documents from seaports in England, Europe, and the United States relating to the shipping activities of Capt. Kermit and his merchant shipowner sons Henry and Robert; items relating to family/house expenses, running a retail store, property rentals, and the settlement of estates; correspondence from shipmasters, agents, and commercial firms in European and American ports relating to ships’ business, market conditions, voyages, and political and social news; ships’ papers relating to purchase, outfitting, voyages, etc.; and estate papers of shipmaster Thomas Orange.
|1791||First American whale ships round Cape Horn and enter the Pacific Ocean.|
|1792||– 1812||British Royal Navy routinely stops United States merchant ships to impress sailors of supposed British origin into naval service during the Napoleonic Wars.|
|1793||– 1806||This is an extremely profitable era of “neutral trade” by United States ships with warring British and French ships during the Napoleonic Wars.|
|1793||United States Congress establishes system of bounty payments to encourage New England cod fishery.|
|1793||– 1807||Fulwar Skipwith Papers; Skipwith, Fulwar|
|1794||Congress authorizes construction of six frigates.|
|1795||Declaration; Stanwood, Winthrop
Sworn to by Winthrop Stanwood of Gloucester, Mass., that his “boat” LUCY will not be employed in trade to defraud the United States of Revenue.
|1796||Manifests and entry papers; Caroline (Brig)
Relative to cargo of Brig CAROLINE, Elihu Cotton, Master, on her return to Middletown, Connecticut from a voyage to Jamaica. Cargo consisted of rum and sugar.
|1796||– 1862||Charles W. Morgan Collection; Morgan, Charles W.|
|1797||– 1804||John Turner Collection; Turner, John|
|1797||Launch of first three frigates, including USS Constitution.|
|1798||United States Congress establishes Department of the Navy.|
|1798||– 1800||United States Navy fights Quasi-War with France.|
|1799||Philadelphia, Boston, and New York vie for commercial supremacy as the leading United States port.|
|1799||First American maritime museum established as the cabinet of curiosities a the East India Marine Society, now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts.|
|1799||Bond; Quantibaycook (Brig)|
|1800||– 1953||Collection of Howard A. Krumwiede; Krumwiede, Howard A.|
|1800||– 1843||David Gelston Papers; Gelston, David|
|1800||In the early decades of this century, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is given responsibility for maintaining river navigation.|
|1800||Sailors of the nineteenth-century, who know rigging of sailing ships better than anyone, fill quiet times aboard ship crafting ships in bottles.|
|1800||– 1860||Shipping articles
Shipping articles relative to the following vessels: Bark ABBOT LORD (1841-’42), Bark AUSTIN (1851-’53), Brig COM. PREBLE (1825-’32), Bark DANA (1846), Brig FEROX (1819), Ship GEN. BERRY (c. 1845), Sloop GEORGE (c. 1820), Ship HAMLIN (1860-’63), Ship HARVEST (1860), Ship LINCOLN (1861), Brig MERCHANT (1805), Brig SUTTON (1849), Brig TRAVELLER (1805-’07), Brig UNION (1823-’31), Brig VENGEANCE (1802), and Brig WILLIAM (c. 1805).
|1801||Consular certificate; Juno (?)
Stating that the vessel JUNO of Bristol (R. I.?), John Kindrich, master, “in consequence of additions since her arrival… is now armed with Ten Carriage Guns.” and signed by James Maury, Consul.
|1801||– 1846||Records of the Warren Insurance Company; Warren Insurance Company|
|1801||– 1805||United States Navy fights war with Tripoli an other Barbary States of North Africa.|
|1802||– 1848||Drawback forms and certificates; United States Customs
Printed forms & certificates,1802-1848, relative to drawbacks and issued by the Customs Administration at various American ports. These documents were required for drawback payments of duties on foreign goods re-shipped out of the U.S. They usually carried the signatures of the Port Collector and Naval Officer. Cargos included nankeens, linen, silk, camphor, tea, Russia sheetings, olive oil, crepe shawls, Linseed oil, and raisins.
|1802||Bill of lading; Olive Branch (Sloop)|
|1803||Louisiana Purchase opens Mississippi River to United States trade.|
|1804||Lewis and Clark Expedition begin their journey following the Missouri and Columbia River systems to explore the United States western territories acquired through the Louisiana Purchase.|
|1804||Customs papers; Susan (Brig)|
|1804||Nautical Almanac; Great Britain. Nautical Almanac Office.
American impressions in which “no pains have been spared to make [them] perfectly correct by comparing with the original London editions” published in the U.S. [1802-1851] at varying locales and by various publishers. Binder’s title on American editions thus appears as “Blunt’s nautical almanac” or “Patten’s nautical almanac.”
|1805||– 1811||James Fennimore Cooper goes to sea aboard merchant and naval ships.|
|1807||– 1826||Drawback forms and certificates; Port authority (Penn.)
Printed drawback forms relative to cargo aboard the Ship PILGRIM (April 6, 1807), Brig JAMES COULTER (April 27, 1826), and Brig STEPHIN GIRARD (April 26, 1826), through the Port of Philadelphia. These forms were required for drawback of duties on foreign merchandise re-shipped out of the U.S. Cargo included raisins, wine, and barrels of makeral.
|1807||– 1808||Affidavit; Providence (Ship)
Affidavit, 1807-1808, of Notary Public, Philadelphia, plus attached sheet of sworn statements, relative to the loss of a cargo of coffee with the foundering at sea of the Ship PROVIDENCE, Holbrook, Master. Vessel was bound for Bremen, and document swears that no revenue is due customs.
|1807||Robert Fulton’s North River Steam Boat carries passengers up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany, inaugurating commercial steamboat service in the United States.|
|1807||HMS Leopard fires into USS Chesapeake over right of impressment, a precipitating factor of the War of 1812.|
|1808||Embargo on foreign trade imposed by President Thomas Jefferson to avoid harassment of United States ships by British and French.|
|1808||Shipping articles; Tenedos (Bark)
Shipping articles for the bark TENEDOS of New London, Conn., King, master, signed at the port of Lahaina, Maui, H.I., Lawrence & Co., owners.
|1809||Notarized sworn statement; Niagara (Brig)
Notarized sworn statement, July 25, 1808, by the owner, master, and mate of Brig NIAGARA of Philadelphia, that the vessel did not violate its Bond during her voyage from Philadelphia to Havana and back.
|1809||Coasting permit and cargo manifest; Polly & Nancy
Coasting permit and cargo manifest issued for the sloop POLLY & NANCY of Egg Harbour to New York and Philadelphia with a cargo of sheathing, lath and sea stores.
|1811||Steamboat New Orleans travels down Ohio and Mississippi Rivers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, inaugurating steamboat service on the western rivers.|
|1812||Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere in the first United States victory of the War of 1812.|
|1812||USS Wasp defeats HMS Frolic.|
|1812||USS United States defeats HMS Macedonian.|
|1812||USS Constitution defeats HMS Java. In this battle the Constitution earns her nickname, “Old Ironsides”.|
|1812||An Act Concerning Letters of Marque, and Prizes; Monroe, James
“An Act Concerning Letters of Marque, Prizes & Prize Goods”; attached with a printed form “Instructions for the Private Armed Vessels of the United States”, which has autograph signature of James Monroe, Sec. of State. This act details the creation & conduct of U.S. Privateers during the War of 1812.
|1812||Bond; Crary, Joseph|
|1812||Collection of Louis F. Middlebrook; Middlebrook, Louis F.|
|1813||USS Essex rounds Cape Horn, the first United States Navy vessel to enter the Pacific Ocean.|
|1813||HMS Shannon defeats USS Chesapeake, despite mortally wounded Captain James Lawrence’s plea, “Don’t give up the ship!”.|
|1813||“We have met the enemy; they are ours,” Master Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry reports after his United States flotilla on Lake Erie defeats the British squadron, ensuring the United States hold on the northwest.|
|1814||USS Essex is defeated by British frigates at Valparaiso, Chile. 13 year old midshipman, David Farragut survives and later becomes a naval hero in the Civil War.|
|1814||Thomas Macdonough’s fleet on Lake Champlain defeats British fleet, stalling the British invasion, and spurs British negotiators to give up territorial claims in America and settle the War of 1812.|
|1815||Steamboat service begins on Long Island Sound.|
|1815||The steamboat Enterprise makes a round trip from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, demonstrating the feasibility of upstream travel.|
|1815||A New Universal Dictionary of the Marine; Falconer, William|
|1815||With the end of the War of 1812, steamboats begin offering excursions in the New York area, increasing public access to waterside recreation.|
|1817||– 1855||James Lowell Papers; Lowell, James|
|1817||The first steamboat reaches St. Louis, Missouri.|
|1817||– 1825||The construction of the Erie Canal opens an efficient water route to go to the west and spurs forty years of canal construction.|
|1817||The Black Ball Line introduces regularly scheduled transatlantic packet service between New York and Liverpool, England.|
|1818||Steamboat Walk-in-the-Water enters service on Lake Erie as the first steamboat on the Great Lakes.|
|1818||Convention of 1818 gives United States fishermen liberty to fish off Newfoundland and Labrador and to dry fish on those unsettled shores.|
|1818||– 1837||Records of William R. Bowers & Co.; William R. Bowers & Co.|
|1819||– 1822||Letter copybook; Blake, Joshua
Letter copybook of Joshua Blake, merchant and shipping agent of Boston, Mass., involved in trans-Atlantic trade.
|1819||SS Savannah makes the first transatlantic crossing by a steamship.|
|1819||The Steamer Savannah demonstrates the possibility of crossing the Atlantic with sail-assisted steam power, paving the way for scheduled service with reliable ocean steamships.|
|1819||– 1860||Port papers; New Bedford Customs District
For the customs district of New Bedford, Mass., including a declaration of no interest in the ship FRANCES, a warehouse bond for champagne, and entry manifests for the brigs BULL, EMILY, and RESOLUTION.
|1820||– 1823||The United States Navy makes the first patrols against slave ships on the West African coast.|
|1820||New Jersey permits individuals to store oysters on unoccupied sea bottom, thereby allowing private control of formerly common ground, followed by similar legislation in Rhode Island (1827), Maryland (1830), and Connecticut (1842).|
|1820||– 1865||Use of oyster dredges is prohibited in Maryland for fear of overfishing.|
|1820||– 1886||Records of the Holmes’ Shipyard; Holmes Shipyard|
|1821||The earliest reference to the art of scrimshaw on an American whaleship.|
|1822||– 1904||Records of Lawrence & Co.; Lawrence & Co.|
|1823||Certificate; Durant, John W.
Certificate, 1823, giving an account of the services of John W. Durant as Inspector for the Port of Philadelphia from April through June, 1823. Document includes a receipt for $273.00. Durant’s wages for the quarter. Payment was received through the Customs Collector, John Steele.
|1823||The United States Navy eradicates piracy in the Caribbean.|
|1824||– 1829||The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is built, connecting Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay.|
|1824||Statement; Splendid (Ship)|
|1824||In his novels The Pilot, The Red Rover, and the Water Witch, James Fenimore Cooper helps launch American sea fiction.|
|1824||In a celebrated rowing race, New York watermen in the American Star defeat a British Royal Navy crew.|
|1825||– 1861||Andrew T. Judson Collection; Judson, Andrew T.|
|1825||– 1855||Heyday of transatlantic sailing packets.|
|1825||Scandinavian immigration begins, and is heaviest after 1840.|
|1826||– 1828||Quarantine rules; Bogota (Brig)
Quarantine rules for New York, New York, issued by John T. Harrison, Health Official. Rules apparently given to John Somers of the brig BOGOTA. Clearance certificate, March 31, 1828, given to James P. Sheffield, master of the brig BOGOTA bound from New York to Gibraltar with a general cargo including tobacco, cocoa, flour, and rice.
|1826||Journal; Cicero (Brig)
Journal kept by Ebenezer Nye, master, of the brig CICERO for a trading voyage from New York, New York to Maracaibo, Venezuela and Bordeaux, France. Mentions shipboard activity, navigational information nad activity in ports visited.
|1827||Journal; Cicero (Brig)
Journal kept by Ebenezer Nye, master, of the brig Cicero for a trading voyage from New York to Maracaibo, Venezuela. Mentions shipboard routine, and navigational information. Cicero was driven ashore and wrecked while approaching Maracaibo. The crew fought off Indians and salvaged part of the cargo. (Nye then spent 4 months in Bogata, returing to Maracaibo in November 1827.)
|1827||– 1828||Journal; Economy (Schooner)
Journal kept by Ebenezer Nye, master of the schooner ECONOMY, for a South American trading voyage from Maracaibo, Venezula to Philadelphia. Vessel was chased by a suspected pirate schooner, carried cargo of dyewookd, hides and skins, coffee, and beeswax.
|1827||– 1850||Hillman Shipyard Collection; Hillman Shipyard
Correspondence; genealogical notes, including material on early Nantucket whaling; ships’ lines of the ship UNION; spar measurements for ships CHARLES W. MORGAN, ARGO, CALIFORNIA, SEA NYMPH, BONITA, and SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS; dimensions of ship SEA WITCH and barks ELIZABETH HULL and JANE A. FALKENBERG; surveys of ships MARIA THERESA and HIAWATHA, and barks MERMAID and JOHN P. WEST; memo of charges for repairs to ship HUNTRESS; and list of vessels built by the yard.
|1827||Logbook; Cicero (Brig)
Journal kept by Ebenezer Nye, master of the brig Cicero, for a trading voyage from N.Y. to Maracaibo, Venezuela. Mentions shipboard routine, navigational information, and port activities. Spoke 5 vessels and mentioned several others.
|1827||Irish and German immigration increases, Irish accounting for 44 percent of total, 1830-1840, and 49 percent of total, 1841-50;Germans accounting for 30 percent, 1830-40.|
|1828||Hillman, Owen; Pilot’s certificate
Pilots certificate of Owen Hillman, New Bedford, Mass., for the harbors of New Bedford and Fairhaven, Mass.
|1828||Shipping papers; Chelsea (Ship)
For Ship CHELSEA, of New York, Acors Barns (1774-1862), master, for voyage from New York to London. Includes N.Y. General Clearance certificate, U.S. Consulate’s bill, victualling bill, cargo manifest, passenger manifest, passenger list, and several bills of lading.
|1829||– 1841||Certificates; District and Port of New York
On the Exportation of Goods, from a District other than the District of original importation.
|1829||The first Welland Canal in Canada opens to carry water traffic around Niagara Falls between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.|
|1830||New England fishermen begin to fish regularly for cod and halibut on Georges Bank, east of Cape Cod.|
|1830||The railroad era begins, offering American businessmen an economical alternative to operating expensive merchant ships.|
|1831||– 1888||John F. Harden Collection; Harden, John F.|
|1831||– 1890||James Bard, in partnership with his twin brother John until 1849, paints in a distinctive draftsmanlike style the sail and steam vessels of New York and the Hudson River.|
|1832||– 1891||James W. Egleston Papers; Egleston, James W.|
|1833||[Chart of Cape Horn]; Laurie, Richard Holmes|
|1834||Certificates; United States Consul
Owners/manufactures oaths,1834, indicating that their goods were properly loaded, shipped and consigned. Documents were issued through customs at Manchester, England, and St. Croix. Includes U.S. Consuls certificates and invoice of cargo. Consulate seal is present on both documents.
|1834||Crew List Certificate; Dragon (Bark)
Crew list certificate for the bark DRAGON of New Bedford, Mass., Enos Pope, master.
|1835||– 1907||Currier and Ives, America’s most prolific lithographic firm, publishes over 350 maritime scenes among their 4,000 popular images.|
|1835||Commercial fishery for menhaden established in southern New England to produce industrial oil and fishmeal for fertilizer.|
|1835||– 1837||Journal; Atlantic (Ship)
Journal kept by Theodore Lewis, M.D., on board the ship Atlantic of Bridgeport, Connecticut. Hunting Cooper, master, for a voyage to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean whaling grounds. Contains illustrations (pencil sketch), mentions death at sea, native contacts, shipboard life. Made 6 ports-of-call and spoke 53 vessels. Contains detailed descriptions of species of whales, whaleboats and whaling gear, cutting and boiling; also the history, government, people, customs and religion of the Falkland Islands; Azores; Tristan da Cunha; Inaccessible Island; Capetown, South Africa; Sandy Island (Rodrigues Island) (off Madagascar); Saint Paul Island (Ile St. Paul); Amsterdam Island; Saint Helena and Ascension Island.
|1836||– 1848||Construction of Illinois and Michigan Canal. This canal connects Lake Michigan at Chicago with the Illinois River and, ultimately, links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River System.|
|1838||– 1842||Lieutenant Charles Wilkes commands the United States Exploring Expedition in an around the world voyage to gather scientific data and seek commercial opportunities in the Pacific.|
|1838||Ships’ papers; Loan (Ship)
For ship Loan of Edgartown, Massachusetts, issued at Port of Edgartown & signed by John P. Norton, collector. Documents contain vessel’s specifications and description, owners’ names and master, Henry H. Merchant.
|1838||– 1926||John H. Brower Papers; Brower, John Hamil|
|1838||– 1852||Daniel Ventres Papers; Ventres, Daniel|
|1838||Membership certificate; New York Marine Society|
|1838||– 1849||Letters; Goldsmith, William Douglas
Letters from a young boy, William Goldsmith, to his little sister Mary, in Mystic Bridge, Conn. William and his family are in New Orleans while Mary lives with Capt. Stephen Morgan’s family in Mystic. Goldsmith may be shipping agent doing business with Morgan and other Mystic ships. Letters mention local news (camp meeting, elephants, and family). William leaves for Galveston, TX (1845), and then to California gold fields (1849). Mary weds Nelson Lamb, of Mystic.
|1839||– 1840||Logbook; Bingham (Ship)
Logbook for the ship Bingham on a whaling voyage in the Atlantic Ocean. Ezra G. Bailey commanded the voyage, William Bailey served as first mate and log keeper. Entries include a detailed description of a fight between crew members, a stopover in the Azores, and a knockdown. William Bailey became ill and left the ship at St. Helena.
|1839||– 1844||Herman Melville spends time at sea aboard a merchant ship, a whaleship, and a naval vessel.|
|1840||British Cunard Line establishes reliable transatlantic steamship line between Liverpool and Boston.|
|1840||– 1850||The United States establishes reliable transatlantic service with large wooden steamships, supported by United States mail subsidies.|
|1840||– 1862||The United States Navy African Squadron operates along the west coast of Africa to prevent slave trading by American-flag vessels.|
|1840||William Underwood’s canning process to preserve food is adopted for lobsters and oysters.|
|1840||Beginnings of Cape Verdean immigration as a consequence of employment in the New England whaling industry.|
|1840||– 1890||Like other religious pilgrims before them, 90,000 Mormon converts cross the ocean to gather at their zion in Utah.|
|1841||The United States Navy launches its first practical steamships, USS Mississippi and Missouri.|
|1841||– 1845||Logbook; Charles W. Morgan (Bark)|
|1842||Annual immigration into the United States first exceeds 100,000.|
|1843||United States Navy launches its first iron ship, the USS Michigan, for service on Great Lakes, and the USS Princeton, the first naval vessel designed for screw propulsion.|
|1843||– 1844||Logbook; Halcyon (Bark)
Logbook of the bark Halcyon for an Indian Ocean whaling voyage. William Bailey commanded the voyage which ended in Geographe Bay, Australia when the Halcyon broke her third anchor chain and wrecked on the beach. The crew and 500 barrels of oil were transfered to the ship Charles Henry of New London.
|1843||Logbook; Stonington (Ship)
Logbook kept on board the ship STONINGTON of New London, Conn., by George W. Hamley, master, for a whaling voyage to the Indian, Pacific, and South Atlantic Ocean whaling grounds. Contains whale stamps. Made 17 ports-of-call and spoke 25 vessels.
|1844||– 1846||Journal; Morrison (Ship)
Journal kept by Rev. Thomas Douglass on board the ship MORRISON of New London, Conn., Samuel Green, Jr., master, for a voyage to the Indian and Pacific Ocean whaling grounds. Journal details shipboard life including a death at sea (Richard Francis, seaman), the religious affairs of sailors and captains, gams with other whaling vessels, whaling in general, descriptions of ports visited, problems with the food and an attempted mutiny. Also contains whale stamps.
|1844||– 1893||Discharge certificates; United States Consular Agency
Discharge certificates for various merchant mariners and six different vessels, primarily in the Pacific Ocean area.
|1844||Dana’s Seamen’s Friend; Dana, Richard Henry,|
|1845||The United States whaling fleet reaches its largest size, with 731 active vessels and scores of men at sea leaving communities of whaling industry wives and widows on shore to manage families, homes and businesses on their own.|
|1845||Fifty midshipmen and seven faculty attend the first term of the United States Naval School in Annapolis, Maryland. Five years later the school becomes known as the United States Naval Academy.|
|1845||Barges are first introduced for bulk cargoes on the Ohio River.|
|1845||– 1860||Cotton is the principal United States export.|
|1845||– 1860||This is the Clipper ship era in the United States, which reaches the height of extreme designs during the 1849-1853 gold rush.|
|1845||The United States whaling fleet reaches its largest size, with 731 active vessels.|
|1845||– 1851||Clearance Papers; Baker, Hiram
Clearance papers issued to Hiram Baker, master of the brigs HARRIET and OSCEOLA, for the ports of Mobile, Malaga, and Canarias.
|1845||– 1940||Isaiah Larabee Collection; Larabee, Isaiah
Chiefly business papers, correspondence, and documents relating to Larabee’s maritime career and the vessels he commanded, including bills, receipts, cargo invoices, charter-parties, articles of agreement, bills of lading, and crew lists; documents regarding the Alabama claims case filed by Larabee and the owners of bark AMANDA; seamen’s protection certificates (21 items, 1845-1861), including seven issued to black seamen; and family papers, including insurance policies, estate papers, tax receipts, and miscellany of Larabee’s descendants in the 1900s. ‚b Trading ports represented include Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Cardiff, London, Kingston, Messina, and Genoa, Italy. Family members represented include his wife, Mary (d. 1878) and children Mary E., Alice, and Isaiah L. Larabee.
|1846||– 1865||Henry W.B. Willis collection; Willis, Henry W. B.
Chiefly correspondence, including many love letters, between Willis and his wife, Sarah (Freeman) Willis, before and after their marriage and between members of the Willis and Freeman families, reflecting family relationships and domestic activities for two middle class New York/New Jersey families; together with articles of agreement, two ships logs, and other documents relating to the SUNNY SOUTH, mastered by Willis, including a consular document (1857) issued at Rio de Janeiro listing crew members discharged, shipped, and deserted form the ship at that port. ‚b Subjects include San Francisco, Calif., and other ports-of-call; Willis’ duties as a young seaman on the ships EXCHANGE and ENTERPRISE; and his work at the railroad freight office in New York, N.Y., after retirement from the sea.
|1846||Logbook; Stonington (Ship)
Logbook kept by Abanson Fournier on board the ship STONINGTON of New London, Conn., George W. Hamley, master, for a voyage from Tasmania to the Pacific Ocean whaling grounds and during the time the ship was commandeered at San Diego, Calif., for Mexican war service. Capt. Hamley was captured at San Blas, Mexico, and Alanson Fournier took command for the passage home. Contains whale stamps.
|1846||The first New England fishing schooner carries ice to preserve fresh halibut.|
|1846||– 1848||Robert J. Walker Letters; Walker, Robert J.|
|1847||– 1863||George W. Dow Papers; Dow, George W.|
|1847||Charter party; Tom Paine (Brig)
Between Peter Clinton and Charles P. Williams for passage from Bucksville, South Carolina to Mystic and Stonington, Connecticut. Clinton was owner of Brig TOM PAINE. Cargo consisted of approximately sixty thousand board feet of lumber.
|1848||African American shipsmith Lewis Temple invents the toggle harpoon, greatly increasing efficiency of whaling.|
|1848||Overfishing on Georges Bank seriously depletes halibut stocks in those waters.|
|1848||Canning of steamed oysters begins in Baltimore, increasing greatly after 1864.|
|1848||The Pacific Mail Steamship Company is formed, inaugurating coastal steamboat service on the West Coast, carrying passengers, freight, and United States Mail.|
|1848||Gold is discovered in California setting off the great “Gold Rush” of 1849.|
|1849||Letter; Brewster, Benjamin
Letter from Benjamin Brewster to his mother in New York, N.Y., describing his trip to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the brig GEORGE EMERY bound for California and giving his impressions of Rio de Janeiro. Includes a carbon copy.
|1849||Diary; Minor, James
Minor’s narrative describes his passage, and that of other members of the New Haven Mining Association aboard the bark ANN SMITH on a voyage to California. Includes description of fellow passengers and crew, shipboard life, and his two week stay at Rio de Janeiro. Drinking passengers he called the ‘liquor party”; crossing the line ceremony detailed; music and songs; opinions regarding ship’s captain and his officer, etc., last entry at sea towards Cape Horn.
|1849||Poem; Marchant, Abiah
Poem written by Abiah Marchant, describing her experiences on board the Ship MAGNOLIA on a passage to California. The diary mentions illness and death at sea, food conditions, storm damage to the vessel, stops at Rio de Janiero and Talcahuano Bay (Chile), and the California gold rush. Also mentions the SOO CHOO (Boston) bound for Valparaiso and San Francisco.
|1849||– 1850||Papers; Union Association of New York
Papers including the constitution, minutes of meetings, bill of sale, inventory of the schooner PENELOPE (ex SARAH CHURCHMAN) and bills of lading for gold shipped in the steamers PANAMA and CALIFORNIA of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company by the Union Association of New York. Most items are signed by all the members including Samuel Moore, W. Vermeulen, E.F. Strolin, E. Mohr, J.H. Rutenberg, Robert Porter, F.G. Adler, M.D., R. Wunderlich, Henry Volckmann, Charles E. Schirmer, Julius Schultze, and J.H. Siemers.
|1849||Letters; Tabele, Montgomery A.
Letter, 1849, from Montgomery A. Tabele, San Francisco, Calif., to his mother probably in New York, N.Y., describing his passage from New York to San Francisco of 186 days in an unnamed vessel. Mentions several vessels with which they sailed in company but devotes much attention to the Straits of Magellan. Also talks about meeting several other San Francisco bound vessels in the Straits and sailing several days in company with the Schooner ROE.
|1849||– 1914||Papers; Childs, Willard Curtis
Papers of Williard Curtis Childs of Natick, Mass., a California 49er on the maiden passage of the clipper ship REINDEER of Boston, Mass., John Lord, master. Papes include a Massachusetts passport, cabin ticket, biographical sketch from the Dec. 15, 1898, issue of the “Natick Review,” and obituries
|1849||– 1850||Journal; Amelia (Brig)
Log kept by Alexander Boyd, Jr., on board the brig AMELIA [of Passamaquoddy, Maine?], Joseph. Clark, master, for a voyage to the California gold fields. Contains crew list. Made 2 ports-of-call, and spoke 9 vessels. (Contains detailed description of Juan Fernandez, Chile.)
|1849||Letters; Williams, Horace
Letter written at sea aboard ship MAGNOLIA by a passenger, Horace Williams, to his sister Harriet, during a trip from New Bedford to San Francisco. Williams,and several fellow passengers from Augusta, Me., were bound for the California gold fields. His letter contains descriptions of shipboard activity, death of fellow passenger at sea, rounding Cape Horn, and Talcahuano, Chili. Mentions a two day race with Ship SWEDEN of Boston. Magnolia departed New Bedford Feb. 9 & arrived in San Francisco Aug. 28, 1849.
|1849||Journal; Selma (Bark)
Journal kept by Harvey G. Brown, on board the bark Selma of New York, N.Y., Orrin Sellew, master, for a voyage to the California gold fields.. Contains crew list and list of members of the Fremont Mining and Trading Company.
|1849||– 1850||Logbook; Stevens, William Lord
Volume of verse kept by William Lord Stevens on board the ship Trescott of Mystic, Conn. Includes a poem describing the voyage of a group of Stonington and New London men to the California gold fields.
|1849||Logbook; Sweden (Ship)
Logbook, 1849, kept on board the ship SWEDEN bound from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California. Logbook kept by Benjamin Bailey traveling to California in company with other gold seekers. Bailey details life at sea including Sunday services, the July Fourth celebration, the bad food they were served, the birth of the Captain’s child, death of a passenger, meeting the ship MAGNOLIA,
|1849||– 1850||Logbook; Sheffield (Ship)
Logbook, 1849-1850, kept by Isaac M. Jessup on board the ship SHEFFIELD of Cold Spring Harbor N.Y., Thomas M. Roys, master, for a voyage to the Pacific Ocean whaling grounds. Contains personal accounts, mentions death at sea (Justin Pratt, seaman), attempted mutiny, resulting discipline, carried cargo of lumber and wheels, made 5 ports-of-call.
|1849||Logbook; Amelia (Brig)|
|1849||Annual immigration to the United States first exceeds 250,000.|
|1849||– 1893||Papers; Harden, John F.|
|1849||– 1894||Fish Family Letters; Fish Family|
|1850||The Collins Line introduces United States luxury transatlantic passenger and mail service between New York and Liverpool with wooden side-wheel steamships. The line goes bankrupt in 1857.|
|1850||United States Congress abolishes flogging as punishment aboard United States Navy ships.|
|1850||– 1851||Journal; Spray (Schooner)
Log kept by Alexander Boyd Jr., on board the schooner SPRAY, James Hall, master, for a coastwise trading voyage. Carried passengers and cargo of lumber. Made 5 ports-of-call.
|1850||– 1860||Mystic Seaport sailing card collection;
Sailing cards (used to advertise vessel qualifications and sailing dates) for a number of well-known vessels, including the DAVID CROCKETT, GREAT REPUBLIC, and YOUNG AMERICA, and other vessels, including several for other vessels built in Mystic, Conn.
|1851||Letter; Bolles, Nancy
Letter describes events at sea, from departure at New London, June 1850 to arrival at Maui 9 months later. Also describes officers and crew, and places visited, including Pitcairn Island. Bolles frequently mentions her children, John & Isable, who accompanied her on the voyage. Nancy Bolles and children remain on Maui while the Alert goes whaling in the Northwest Pacific.
|1851||San Francisco Bay is choked with 500 abandoned ships as sailors leave them for the gold fields.|
|1851||Schooner-yacht America crosses Atlantic and defeats Royal Yacht Squadron, winning the trophy now called the America’s Cup, the focus of the longest-running international sporting event.|
|1851||Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick.|
|1852||First Yale-Harvard crew race, which introduces intercollegiate athletics and popularity of rowing as sport.|
|1852||Two letters; Barber, Jane G.
Written by Jane G. Barber [of Westerly, R. I.?] to her parents, describing her experiences at sea. Along with her husband, William, she sailed from New York to Galveston aboard the Ship OCEAN EAGLE. She also describes a passage from New York to St. Marks, which includes her description of the crew.
|1852||– 1854||Papers; Boyd, Thomas
Papers of Thomas Boyd of Boston, Mass., including a map kept by Boyd during a passage from Boston to San Francisco on board the clipper ship GOLDEN FLEECE of Boston, letters of Boyd to his daughters in Boston, and two sketches of Cape Horn.
|1853||Steamship operator Cornelius Vanderbilt builds the first American steam yacht, the 270- foot North Star.|
|1853||Logbook; Challenge (Ship)
Logbook, 1849-1850, of the ship CHALLENGE for a voyage from Hong Kong to London. The CHALLENGE leaks considerably on the voyage to London, pumps are manned constantly and forces the ship to put into Fayal for repairs where the entries end.
|1853||– 1855||Construction of locks at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan (The “Soo” Locks), allows direct navigation between Lakes Superior and Huron.|
|1854||Chinese laborers begin arriving in significant numbers, most intending to return to China after accumulating wealth.|
|1854||Commodore Matthew C. Perry opens negotiations with Japan on the Treaty of Kanagawa, thus clearing the way for trade with the United States.|
|1854||Treaty of Medicine Creek secures Indian fishing rights in the Northwest.|
|1854||Letter; Fessenden. C.B.H.
Letter from C.B.H. Fessenden at the customs house in New Bedford, Ma., to W. Belcher. Letter concerns consulate at Hawaii, stating unsavory reputation, and political influences of same.
|1855||Letters; Stark, Mary Rathbun
Letters written by Mary Rathbun Stark in the clipper ship B.F. HOXIE of Mystic, Conn., of which her husband, Henry S. Stark, was master on a voyage from Philadelphia, Pa., to San Francisco, to Honolulu, Hawaii, to New York, N.Y. Most of the letters are to daughter, Lizzie Stark, in Mystic. Letters describe life on board ship and in port and Mrs. Stark’s concerns for her husband and family. The vessel was owned by N.G. Fish & Company of Mystic. Among other things, she carried gun powder to San Francisco. Her cargo from Honolulu included whale oil, whale bone, goat skins, and hides. Includes also one letter from Henry S. Stark to his father.
|1855||Connecticut oystermen begin to practice aquaculture, buying or leasing underwater plots and taking young oysters from natural beds to grow in these artificial beds.|
|1855||Castle Garden at New York is established as principal East Coast immigrant processing depot, operating until 1890.|
|1855||– 1860||Scattered papers; Morning Glory (Ship)
Papers of ship MORNING GLORY, of Portsmouth, N.H. Hiram H. Hobbs master, including correspondence, disbursements, charters, Lloyd’s inspection, bottomry bonds, repair bill, bills of lading, average bond, and loss inventory
|1856||Certificate; Morning Star (Brig)
Boston, issued by the Amercan Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, showing that Vernilia Lewis contributed $.10 (1 share) to the missionary packet MORNING STAR. Certificate contains illustration of a brig along island shore.
|1856||– 1860||Track of four passages; Andrew Jackson (Ship)
Chart with tracks of the clipper ship ANDREW JACKSON between New York, N.Y., and San Francisco, Calif., via Cape Horn, including one original chart and three photostatic copies of a different chart. The photostatic copies indicate an incorrect latitude for the Cape Horn area.
|1857||Receipt; Emily Morgan (Ship)
Receipt issued to the ship EMILY MORGAN of New Bedford, Mass., Prince W. Ewer, master, from Thomas W. Everett, deputy sheriff, Lahaina, Hawaiian Islands, for arrest and detention of deserted seaman.
|1857||New York Marine Register|
|1858||New York Marine Register|
|1858||– 1865||Papers; Charles S. Pennell (Ship)
Of the ship Charles S. Pennell of Bath, Maine, Robert Giveen, master, including receipts, bills accounts, letters, custom house records, certificate of measurement, and some italian bills. Also contains insurance policy for bark
|1858||Journal; Marion (Ship)
Journal, Jan. 1858-Sept. 1860, kept by Henry Eason, a seaman aboard U.S. Sloop of War MARION (U.S. naval vessel with 16 guns), Captain Brent, during an anti-slaving naval cruise off the African coast. ‚b MARION patroled near the Congo River, and the volume contains descriptions of searching and seizing vessels, activity aboard ship, and places visited. Many American and British naval vessels are mentioned. A good account of naval life at sea and the African slave trade. Mentions death at sea, burial at sea, discipline, native contacts, food at sea. Contains accounts of crew wages, illustrations, prose and verse.
|1858||– 1859||Logbook; Mary and Louisa (Bark)|
|1858||Clearance; Hound (Ship)
Clearance issued by the District and Port Of San Francisco, Calif., to the ship HOUND, L.D.(Lorenzo Dow) Baker, master, outbound to Hong Kong, China.
|1858||Notice to mariners
Broadside of a Notice to Mariners concerning the establishment of a Bell Boat just outside the bar, at the entrance to San Francisco Bay, California, includes notification that the Fog Gun Signal at Point Bonita is discontinued.
|1858||Journal; Victoria (Brig)
Log kept on board the Honolulu brig VICTORIA, Milton Fish, master, for a whaling and trading voyage to the Arctic Ocean. The VICTORIA traded with Arctic natives for sable skins, otter skins, mink skins, fox skins, ivory, and whalebones, while hunting for whales. Logbook records required navigational data, Captain Fish’s philosophical musings, details regarding the loss of French ship NAPOLEON III in the Arctic Ice, a crew list and the rescue of the two sole survivors from INDIAN CHIEF which was lost the previous year.
|1859||Logbook; Perserverance (Schooner)
Journal kept on board the schooner PERSERVERANCE for a Great Lakes trading voyage. Contains illustration, and carried cargos of sand, salt, and staves.
|1859||Samuel Clemens spends three years training to become a Mississippi River pilot, later adopting Mark Twain (two fathoms, or 12 feet of depth to the river pilot) as his literary name.|
|1859||The first successful oil well drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, introduces the age of petroleum.|
|1859||Steamboat service is available from St. Louis to Ft. Benton, Montana, 2,000 miles up the Missouri River.|
|1861||– 1865||The “flight from the flag” occurs to avoid high insurance rates and possible destruction by Confederate commerce raiders during Civil War. This results in the sale of more than 30 percent of United States merchant fleet to foreign owners.|
|1861||With the outbreak of Civil War, President Lincoln proclaims blockade of Southern coast, requiring expansion of United States Navy from 90 to more than 600 vessels during the war.|
|1861||Shipmaster’s license; Post, Charles
Shipmaster’s license for Charles Post issued by the American Shipmasters’ Association in New York.. Certificate is illustrated with four engravings of ships at sea, and figures of a woman and sailor.
|1861||– 1875||Legal Records of the Smack L. A. MACOMBER; L. A. Macomber (Smack)|
|1861||Logbook; Kearsarge (Sloop-of-war)
Journal kept by William Wainwright on board the U.S.S. KEARSARGE, Captain Pickering, and later Captain John A. Winslow, commanding for a Naval cruise. A detailed and descriptive journal, including details of burial at sea.
|1862||– 1917||Edward Lupton Papers; Lupton, Edward|
|1862||In February, a United States gunboat flotilla begins to advance on the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers.|
|1862||The first battle occurs between ironclad warships as USS Monitor confronts CSS Virginia(ex-USS Merrimack), which had destroyed three wooden United States Navy ships in Hampton Roads, Virginia.|
|1862||In April, the Union fleet under Admiral David Farragut runs Confederate defenses of Mississippi River Delta, leading to the fall of New Orleans.|
|1862||The United States Congress abolishes the daily grog (alcohol) ration in the United States Navy.|
|1862||The registered tonnage of United States deep-sea fishing vessels reaches its highest point.|
|1863||After a year of Union naval attacks and three month siege, the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, falls. With surrender of Port Hudson, Louisiana, five days later, the Mississippi River comes under Union control.|
|1863||Shipping Articles; Kamehameha V (Bark)
Hawaiian Shipping Articles for a whaling voyage to the California coast. Contains names of crew and mentions previous vessel name as being Bark Zoe.
|1864||– 1920||Peter Strickland Collection; Strickland, Peter
Letter books (1883-1922) and diaries (6 v., 1894-1920, chiefly after 1907), with information of Strickland’s daily life in Africa and business, political and social conditions there; journal logs (1864-1870) of the schooner INDIAN QUEEN; brig ROBERT WING, and barks RAPID and ZINGARELLA of which Strickland was shipmaster; business ledger; 1883 consular report; and published grammar of the Wolof language (1878) and book entitled Trading Monopolies in West Africa (1901).
|1864||In the first successful submarine attack, CSS H.L. Hunley sinks USS Housatonic off Charleston, South Carolina, but is lost in the attack.|
|1864||The USS Kearsarge sinks the CSS Alabama off Cherbourg, France, after Alabama had destroyed 64 United States merchant ships during nearly two years of commerce raiding.|
|1864||The Union fleet under Admiral Farragut aboard USS Hartford storms Mobile Bay, with Farragut reportedly ordering, “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead,” capturing the ironclad CSS Tennessee and sealing the last large Confederate Gulf Coast port.|
|1864||The Hume brothers of Maine establish a salmon cannery in California, moving to the Columbia River in 1867, which initiates a large-scale salmon fishery from California to Alaska.|
|1864||The fame of Captain John Winslow and the USS Kearsarge are put to good use at the National Sailor’s Fair in Boston in 1864. Copies of the song, Welcome Song, Dedicated to the Commander, Officers, and Crew of the Kearsarge are sold to raise money for Civil War navy veterans.|
|1865||In April, the 161-foot stern-wheel steamboat Bertrand strikes a submerged “snag” (log) and sinks north of Omaha, Nebraska. More than a hundred years later the remains are recovered in a field far from the modern river course. The cargo preserved on board reveals much about the trading patterns that supplied the western communities.|
|1865||Longline trawl, equipped with hundreds of hooks and set from dories, becomes the primary method of catching bottom-dwelling fish.|
|1865||Maryland limits oyster dredging to sailing vessels.|
|1865||An amphibious assault with naval support captures Fort Fisher, North Carolina, closing the last Confederate port on the Atlantic to blockade runners during the Civil War.|
|1865||In April, at end of the Civil War, the United States Navy totals more than 600 vessels and 51,500 men.|
|1865||In June, the CSS Shenandoah sinks 24 American whaleships off Alaska before learning of the war’s end.|
|1866||The federal bounty to support codfishing vessels is eliminated.|
|1866||In the first transatlantic yacht race, James Gordon Bennett, Jr’s schooner Henrietta defeats two other schooners in the December crossing.|
|1866||– 1917||George C.Bugbee Collection
Bugbee Collection; Bugbee, George C.
Chiefly papers (1866-1869) from Bugbee’s voyages as an ordinary seaman aboard the ship PREMIER, of Bangor, Me., and the bark LOCH LAMAR, including journal, 3 vols. of his poetry,3 letters between Bugbee and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. James R. Bugbee, of Boston, and miscellaneous notes and sketches; together with clippings of Bugbee’s poems printed in newspapers (1916-1917). ‚b Bugbee’s journal describes life at sea and at port and social condition in cities visited, including Calcutta, India, Pernambuco, Brazil, and Simonstown, South Africa.
|1867||Letters; Hanson, Henry
Letters, 1867, written by Capt. Henry Hanson on board the Ship Good Hope on a voyage around Cape Horn enroute to California. Letters, addressed to “Mr. Wikoff”, “Friend W.” and “My dear little friend” joke about the rounding the Horn and about setting up a farm in Terra del Feugo, and Patagonia with a natural grazing pasture in the Falkand Islands. Includes a map of the proposed farm with tracks for the voyages of the Ships Good Hope and Wild Pigeon.
|1867||The purse-seine fish net becomes the primary method of catching surface-schooling fish, especially menhaden and mackerel.|
|1867||The Pacific Mail Steamship Company introduces regular United States transpacific passenger and freight service from San Francisco to Hong Kong, via Honolulu and Yokohama.|
|1868||The USS Wampanoag sets an ocean speed record with a run of almost 18 knots; however, the United States Navy returns to small-scale force with ironclad monitors for coastal defense and a few wooden sail and steam powered vessels for distant stations.|
|1868||Maryland establishes “Oyster Navy,” the Maryland Marine Police, to preserve order between oyster tongers and oyster dredgers.|
|1869||Journal; Waterman, Lucius A.
Journal kept by Lucius A. Waterman during voyages on the Pacific Mail Steamship Company’s Ships CHINA, CONSTITUTION, and OCEAN QUEEN, from Hong Kong to New York. Contains illustrations, photographs, menus; mentions death at sea.
|1870||Letter; Maxson, Maud
Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson, Mystic, Conn., describing her trip to San Francisco, Calif., in an unnamed vessel of which her uncle, Charles Wheeler, was master.
|1870||Logbook; Kilauea (Steamship)
Logbook, kept by engineer Robert Wilson Andrews on board the steamship KILAUEA of Honolulu, Hawaii,Thomas, master, for a voyage to Ocean Island to rescue the stranded crew of the Steamship Saginaw. Captains Harrison and Brown took success commands. Contains illustrations, made 2 ports-of-call.
|1870||Journal; Andrews, Robert Wilson
Journal kept by Robert Wilson Andrews relating daily social and work evenst in Honolulu, Hawaii, primarily in the Fort Street area, and a small amount of time serving on board the Hawaiian Steamship Kilauea. Andrews often mentions religious activities such as meetings as well as the arrivals and departures of various vessels as well as the Kilauea.
|1870||– 1890||These years make up the Era of “Down Easters,” large wooden sailing ships mostly built in Maine which carry bulk cargoes between the East and West Coasts, take American goods to Asia, and deliver California grain to Europe.|
|1870||The number of steamships exceeds the number of sailing vessels on the Great Lakes.|
|1870||– 1900||Art colonies are established in various coastal locations, including Provincetown and Cape Ann, Massachusetts, Old Lyme and Cos Cob, Connecticut, and Easthampton, Long Island, New York, frequented by American realist and impressionist artists such as Winslow Homer, Henry Ward Ranger, Childe Hassam, Edward and Thomas Moran, and J.H. Twachtman.|
|1871||In the first America’s Cup challenge, the New York Yacht Club fleet defeats the British schooner Cambria.|
|1871||Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club is established at the beginning of the “Corinthian movement” to emphasize amateur sailboat racing.|
|1871||Record of American and Foreign Shipping|
|1871||Captains of the American whaling fleet who are trapped by ice in the Arctic Ocean on north coast of Alaska sign a document testifying to their dreadful situation and resolution to abandon ship. In the end, 32 vessels are lost, but 1,200 whalemen, with a few captains’ wives and children, are rescued without a single loss of life. This disaster dealt yet another deadly blow to the whaling industry which was already in decline.|
|1871||– 1873||Logbook; Helen Mar (Bark)
Copy of a logbook kept by J. J. O’Donnell on board the bark Helen Mar of New Bedford, Massachusetts. William H. Koon, master, for a voyage to the Arctic Ocean whaling grounds. Mentions injury at sea, native contacts, and women at sea. Made 9 ports-of-call and spoke 33 vessels. Mentions shipwrecks in Arctic of whalers caught in the ice in 1871.
|1872||Letters; Wood, N.H.
Description of a trip to the Kilauea Crater on the Island of Hawaii; written by N.H. Wood. Includes pencil illustration of the crater, and details of activity.
|1873||– 1878||Shipping articles;
Shipping articles of vessels from Honolulu, Hawaii, including the schooners FAIRY QUEEN, SEAHE, and HALEAKALA
|1873||– 1874||Logbook; Sea Breeze (Bark)
Copy of a logbook kept by J. J. O’Donnell on board the bark Sea Breeze of New Bedford, Massachusetts. R. D. Wicks, master, for a voyage to the Pacific Ocean and Arctic Ocean whaling grounds. Mentions death at sea, injury at sea. Made 10 ports-of-call and spoke 9 vessels.
|1873||– 1875||The Eads Bridge at St. Louis, the first bridge across the Mississippi, is constructed.|
|1873||– 1919||After emigrating from Denmark, Antonio Jacobsen becomes a ship portrait painter in the port of New York, completing 2,600 paintings during his 45-year career.|
|1873||– 1909||Winslow Homer paints coastal and river fishing scenes in oil and watercolor, including Breezing Up (1876).|
|1873||– 1888||Charles Lewis Richards Collection; Richards, Charles Lewis|
|1873||– 1895||Letters; Wood, Aaron H.
Letters, primarily written by shipmaster Aaron H. Wood and his wife, Isabel during trading voyages from N.Y. to Liverpool, San Francisco, and other ports, aboard the Ships SAGAMORE & SOVERIGN OF THE SEAS II. All letters were to George & Hattie Wood in Warren, R.I., including the four written by John B. Wood. Isabel & son, Oscar, traveled aboard ship with Aaron. Letters detail shipping and domestic activities.
We are now at the Birkenhead dock (across a ferry from Liverpool) where we are to discharge our cargo I wrote you Wed. 27th. We took pilot aboard nine that evening, and anchored in the river yesterday morning, just a year from the day we sailed from Eng. This morning we came to dock. Aaron went on shore yesterday as soon as the anchor was down, and last night, brought off about thirty friendly letters, and several business letters. You have all been so very good, we were quite overjoyed, and so thankful to hear, (on the whole) good news, all seem as well as usual &c. We read letters (rather I read, for Aarons eye was very bad, so he could read none of them. he always likes to do his share of reading them aloud)
|1874||American Yacht List|
|1874||– 1887||Thomas Eakins paints boating scenes on the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers.|
|1874||Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) publishes Life on the Mississippi.|
|1874||The first steam-powered fishing vessels are built for coastal use in oyster and menhaden fisheries.|
|1874||Maine begins to set open season for lobstering and minimum size for harvesting lobsters to conserve species.|
|1874||– 1875||Logbook; Jireh Perry (Ship)
Copy of a logbook kept by J. J. O’Donnell on board the ship Jireh Perry of New Bedford, Massachusetts. Leander C. Owen, master, for a voyage to the Pacific Ocean whaling grounds. Mentions native contacts. Made 3 ports-of-call and spoke 8 vessels.
|1875||– 1892||The first efforts to establish sailors’ unions result in National Seaman’s Union.|
|1875||The Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, China Seas; Labrosse, F.|
|1876||Mark Twain publishes Adventures of Tom Sawyer.|
|1878||Fish dealer Henry Mayo of Boston first patents “codfish balls” better known to us as codfish cakes. His product is wildly successful with the American public, thanks in large part to Mayo’s curious trade cards which comment on public affairs or simply celebrate his products in verse.|
|1878||– 1896||Construction of locks around Columbia River Cascades extends navigation up the river.|
|1878||The first salmon cannery in Alaska opens.|
|1879||The greatest annual loss of life in the New England fisheries occurred this year, with 29 vessels and 249 fishermen lost at sea.|
|1879||The Mississippi River Commission is established to manage levees and flood-control efforts on the Mississippi.|
|1880||Baltimore becomes the second leading destination for transatlantic immigrants.|
|1880||– 1920||Steamboat Ephemera;|
|1880||– 1920||Joseph J. Fuller collection; Fuller, Joseph J.
Memoirs containing descriptions of the sea elephant industry (principally in the Indian Ocean) and the year Fuller spent shipwrecked with the crew of the schooner PILOT’S BRIDE in the Kerguelen Islands; together with a scrapbook of clippings relating to Fuller and other subjects of maritime interest in the New London area.
|1881||Annual immigration first exceeds 500,000.|
|1881||The enlarged lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, permits large-scale shipment of iron ore from Minnesota to Cleveland, Ohio, for the expanding United States iron and steel industry.|
|1882||Admiral Robert W. Schufeldt, in command of United States Navy squadron, negotiates commercial relations with Korea.|
|1882||The Chinese Exclusion Act limits entry of Chinese laborers.|
|1883||Dorymates Howard Blackburn and Thomas Walsh go astray in fog while fishing 100 miles off Newfoundland; Walsh dies but Blackburn rows to shore and survives, despite losing his fingers and toes to frostbite, setting the standard for the heroic endurance of Gloucester fishermen.|
|1883||Congress authorizes first steel ships of the United States Navy – the ABCD ships Atlanta, Boston, Chicago and Dolphin – inaugurating the nation’s “new” modern navy and setting the stage for the military-industrial complex.|
|1883||Invitation; Haley, Nelson ColeInvitation issued to Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Cole Haley for the coronation ceremonies of the King and Queen of Hawaii|
|1884||Mariner’s Medical Guide; Folsom, James|
|1884||– 1888||Records of the Sea Queen (Bark); Sea Queen (Bark)|
|1884||Mark Twain publishes Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.|
|1885||From Keel to Truck: A Marine Dictionary; Paasch, H. (Heinrich)|
|1885||American Yacht List|
|1885||Maryland oystermen harvest a record 15,000,000 bushels of oysters.|
|1885||Immigration from Russia, Poland, Italy, and Eastern Europe increases.|
|1885||Record of American and Foreign Shipping;|
|1887||– 1879||Logbook; Janet (Bark)
Logbook kept by Henry M. King, third mate, on board bark Janet of New Bedford, Massachusetts. Peter Gartland, master for a voyage to the Atlantic Ocean whaling grounds. Contains whale stamps, crew list, mentions death at sea and injury at sea. Made 10 ports-of-call and spoke 50 vessels. King discharged on October 20, 1879 and returned home on bark Veronica of New Bedford, Massachusetts.
|1887||A Testimonial to Charles J. Paine and Edward Burge; Boston City Council
A testimonial to Charles J. Paine and Edward Burgess from the City of Boston, for their successful defence of the America’s Cup.
|1887||Specifications; Providence and Stonington Steamship Co.
Specification for the machinery of a side wheel passenger steamer for the Providence & Stonington S.S. Co. The specifications are said to be for the steamship CONNECTICUT.
|1888||Commercial halibut fishing begins in the Pacific Northwest.|
|1888||Congress suspends the southern mackerel season for five years as experiment to conserve the species.|
|1888||The Standard Oil Company builds the first United States oil tanker, Standard.|
|1890||– 1910||These years mark a transitional period on the Mississippi River system with a shift from large passenger and freight-carrying steamboats to towboats pushing strings of barges carrying bulk cargoes.|
|1890||Maryland imposes a minimum size for harvestable oysters.|
|1890||Steamboat Sailing Card; Hart Line|
|1890||– 1899||The gasoline engine is perfected as a safer alternative to steam engines or naphtha engines in small recreational boats that appeal to masses of consumers.|
|1890||– 1950||Charles G. Davis Collection; Davis, Charles G.|
|1890||Record of American and Foreign Shipping|
|1891||American Yacht List|
|1891||Japanese immigration begins.|
|1892||Ellis Island opens as the principal East Coast immigrant processing station. A 15 year old Irish girl named Annie Moore becomes the first of more than 12 million immigrants who will pass through the doors of the Ellis Island Immigration Station.|
|1892||British-built City of Paris and City of New York are given United States registry, making them the first modern United States ocean liners, followed by United States built St. Louis and St. Paul.|
|1893||– 1903||Charles Oliver Iselin Papers; Iselin, C. Oliver|
|1894||Steam-powered tonnage exceeds sail-powered tonnage in United States merchant marine for first time.|
|1894||Sailing Schedule; Clyde’s Steamship Lines|
|1895||The Cunard Passenger’s log-book; Cunard Steamship Company, ltd,|
|1896||– 1927||Engineers Licenses; Steamboat Inspection Service|
|1896||George Harbo and Frank Samuelson row across the Atlantic, from New York to Le Havre.|
|1896||– 1897||Rudyard Kipling publishes Captains Courageous about a boy’s coming of age aboard a fishing schooner.|
|1896||Letters, newspaper clippings, and notes.; Williams, John E.
Letters, newspaper clippings of John E. Williams, master of Mystic built Clipper ANDREW JACKSON. Relative to record making passage (March 1860) of ANDREW JACKSON from N.Y. to San Francisco.
|1898||The short story, “The Open Boat” is published by Stephen Crane.|
|1898||Battleship USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor, killing 251; war declared in April as Americans “remember the Maine”.|
|1898||“You may fire when you are ready, Gridley,” Commodore George Dewey orders as the United States Navy Asia Squadron enters Manila Bay and defeats Spanish fleet, leading to eventual United States acquisition of the Philippines.|
|1898||In Battle of Santiago Bay, Cuba, United States Navy Atlantic Fleet defeats Spanish fleet, leading to United States acquisition of Puerto Rico and capitulation of Spain on August 12.|
|1898||The United States annexes Hawaii; Spain cedes the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the United States to settle Spanish-American War.|
|1898||– 1912||Oyster production peaks in the Northeast: nearly 25,000,000 pounds of oyster meat in New York, 15,000,000 in Connecticut, and 15,000,000in Rhode Island.|
|1899||New York is the leading United States port.|
|1899||Log of the Columbia, Season of 1899; Leeds, Herbert Corey|
|1901||Pamphlet; North German Lloyd Steamship,|
|1902||Schedule; Martha (Steamboat)|
|1904||Postcard; Merion (Steamship)|
|1905||Menu; Baltic (Steamship)|
|1906||Program; Parisian (Steamship)|
|1909||Passenger Logbook; Lusitania (Steamship)|
|1910||Passenger Logbook; Lusitania (Steamship)|
|1912||Lloyd’s Book of House Flags and Funnels; ,|
|1913||Customs papers; Ceres (Brig)|
|1913||Passenger list; George Washington (Steamship)|
|1915||Information Booklet for Passengers; Hamburg-American Line,|
|1920||Passenger Ship Pamphlets|
|1925||– 1971||L. Francis Herreshoff Collection; Herreshoff, L. Francis|
|1931||– 1990||Roderick Stephens Collection; Stephens, Roderick|
|1931||– 1865||Certificate of Classification; American Lloyds.
Certificates of Survey and Classification for the schooner E. ARCULERIOS, Y. Jackson, master, issued by American Lloyds Register of Shipping; the schooner AMARANTH, Robert Gay, master, issued by the surveyors at the Port of Charleston, South Carolina; and the ship GERMANIA, Charles H. Townsend, master, issued by Universal Lloyd, and American Lloyd’s.
|1992||American Maritime Documents, 1776-1860
Stein, Douglas L.
|2001||Directory of Private Signals Flown by American Merchant Sail; Crothers, William L.|